Topology-Based Routing Protocols and Mobility Models for Flying Ad Hoc Networks: A Contemporary Review and Future Research Directions

Ali H. Wheeb, Rosdiadee Nordin, Asma’ Abu Samah, Mohammed H. Alsharif, Muhammad Asghar Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Telecommunications among unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have emerged recently due to rapid improvements in wireless technology, low-cost equipment, advancement in networking communication techniques, and demand from various industries that seek to leverage aerial data to improve their business and operations. As such, UAVs have started to become extremely prevalent for a variety of civilian, commercial, and military uses over the past few years. UAVs form a flying ad hoc network (FANET) as they communicate and collaborate wirelessly. FANETs may be utilized to quickly complete complex operations. FANETs are frequently deployed in three dimensions, with a mobility model determined by the work they are to do, and hence differ between vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) and mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in terms of features and attributes. Furthermore, different flight constraints and the high dynamic topology of FANETs make the design of routing protocols difficult. This paper presents a comprehensive review covering the UAV network, the several communication links, the routing protocols, the mobility models, the important research issues, and simulation software dedicated to FANETs. A topology-based routing protocol specialized to FANETs is discussed in-depth, with detailed categorization, descriptions, and qualitatively compared analyses. In addition, the paper demonstrates open research topics and future challenge issues that need to be resolved by the researchers, before UAVs communications are expected to become a reality and practical in the industry.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • Flying ad hoc network
  • Mobility models
  • Multi-UAV network
  • Topology-based routing protocols
  • Unmanned aerial vehicle


Dive into the research topics of 'Topology-Based Routing Protocols and Mobility Models for Flying Ad Hoc Networks: A Contemporary Review and Future Research Directions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this