Biochemical Interactions through Microscopic Techniques: Structural and Molecular Characterization

Hassan Nezammahalleh, Faezeh Ghanati, Shima Rezaei, Mohsin Ali Badshah, Joobee Park, Naseem Abbas, Ahsan Ali

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Many researchers and scientists have contributed significantly to provide structural and molecular characterizations of biochemical interactions using microscopic techniques in the recent decade, as these biochemical interactions play a crucial role in the production of diverse biomaterials and the organization of biological systems. The properties, activities, and functionalities of the biomaterials and biological systems need to be identified and modified for different purposes in both the material and life sciences. The present study aimed to review the advantages and disadvantages of three main branches of microscopy techniques (optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy) developed for the characterization of these interactions. First, we explain the basic concepts of microscopy and then the breadth of their applicability to different fields of research. This work could be useful for future research works on biochemical self-assembly, biochemical aggregation and localization, biological functionalities, cell viability, live-cell imaging, material stability, and membrane permeability, among others. This understanding is of high importance in rapid, inexpensive, and accurate analysis of biochemical interactions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2853
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • biochemical interactions
  • fluorescence
  • material and biological sciences
  • microscopy
  • resolution scale
  • structural and molecular characteristics


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