A Review of Biomass-Derived Heterogeneous Catalysts for Biodiesel Production

Somasundaram Chandra Kishore, Suguna Perumal, Raji Atchudan, Ashok K. Sundramoorthy, Muthulakshmi Alagan, Sambasivam Sangaraju, Yong Rok Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The scientific community is being forced to consider alternative renewable fuels such as biodiesel as a result of the sharp increases in the price of petroleum and the increased demand for petroleum-derived products. Transesterification is a technique used to create biodiesel where a variety of edible oils, non-edible oils, and animal fats are used. For this, either a homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst is utilized. An appropriate catalyst is chosen based on the quantity of free fatty acid content in the oil. The main distinction between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts is that compared to the heterogeneous catalyst, the homogeneous catalyst is not affected by the quantity of free fatty acids in the oil. Early methods of producing biodiesel relied on homogeneous catalysts, which have drawbacks such as high flammability, toxicity, corrosion, byproducts such as soap and glycerol, and high wastewater output. The majority of these issues are solved by heterogeneous catalysts. Recent innovations use novel heterogeneous catalysts that are obtained from biomass and biowaste resources. Numerous researchers have documented the use of biomass-derived heterogeneous catalysts in the production of high-quality, pure biodiesel as a potentially greener manufacturing method. The catalysts were significantly altered through conventional physical processes that were both cost- and energy-effective. The present review is intended to analyze catalysts from biowaste for making biodiesel at a minimal cost. The most recent methods for creating diverse kinds of catalysts—including acidic, basic, bifunctional, and nanocatalysts—from various chemicals and biomass are highlighted in this review. Additionally, the effects of various catalyst preparation methods on biodiesel yield are thoroughly explored.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1501
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • biodiesel
  • biomass
  • heterogeneous catalyst


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